(Received in May, 2012)
Portugal, officially the Portuguese Republic (República Portuguesa) is a country situated in southwestern Europe on the Iberian Peninsula. Portugal is the westernmost country of mainland Europe, and is bordered by the Atlantic Ocean to the West and South and by Spain to the North and East. The Atlantic archipelagos of the Azores and Madeira are part of Portugal.
The country has two great metropolitan urban areas, the Greater Metropolitan Area of Porto, in the North, and the Greater Metropolitan Area of Lisbon, in the South, constructed from the two main cities that generated the idiosyncrasy of the Portuguese, having always existed a rivalry, conscious or unconscious, between the populations of the two cities. The country is named after its second largest city, Porto, whose Latin name was Portus Cale.